Thursday, July 29, 2010

How to Deliver Presentation

Delivery

'Delivery' refers to the way in which you actually deliver or perform or give your presentation. Delivery is a vital aspect of all presentations. Delivery is at least as important as content, especially in a multi-cultural context.

Nerves

Most speakers are a little nervous at the beginning of a presentation. So it is normal if you are nervous. The answer is to pay special attention to the beginning of your presentation. First impressions count. This is the time when you establish a rapport with your audience. During this time, try to speak slowly and calmly. You should perhaps learn your introduction by heart. After a few moments, you will relax and gain confidence.

Audience Rapport

You need to build a warm and friendly relationship with your audience. Enthusiasm is contagious. If you are enthusiastic your audience will be enthusiastic too. And be careful to establish eye contact with each member of your audience. Each person should feel that you are speaking directly to him or her. This means that you must look at each person in turn - in as natural a way as possible. This will also give you the opportunity to detect signs of boredom, disinterest or even disagreement, allowing you to modify your presentation as appropriate.

Your objective is to communicate.

 Body Language

What you do not say is at least as important as what you do say. Your body is speaking to your audience even before you open your mouth. Your clothes, your walk, your glasses, your haircut, your expression - it is from these that your audience forms its first impression as you enter the room . Generally speaking, it is better to stand rather than sit when making  a presentation. Be aware of and avoid any repetitive and irritating gestures. Be aware,too,that the movement of your body is one of your methods of control. When you move to or from the whiteboard, for example, you can move fast or slowly, raising or reducing the dynamism within the audience.You can stand very still while talking or you can stroll from side to side. What effect do you think these two different approaches would have on an audience?

Voice quality

It is, of course, important that your audience be able to hear you clearly throughout your presentation. Remember that  if you turn away from your audience, for example towards the whiteboard, you need to speak a little more loudly. In general, you should try to vary your voice. Your voice will then be more interesting for your audience. You can vary your voice in at least three ways:

 1. Speed: you can speak at normal speed, you can speak faster, you can speak more slowly - and you can stop completely! You can pause. This is a very good technique for gaining your audience's attention.
 2. Tone: you can change the pitch of your voice. You can speak in a high tone. You can speak in a low tone.
 3. Volume: you can speak at normal volume, you can speak loudly and you can speak quietly. Lowering your voice and speaking quietly can again attract your audience's interest.

The important point is not to speak in the same,flat, monotonous voice throughout your presentation - this is the voice that hypnotists use to put their patients' into trance.

Visual aids

Of all the information that enters our brains, the vast majority of it enters through the eyes. 80% of what your audience learn during your presentation is learned visually (what they see) and only 20% is learned aurally (what they hear). The significance of this is obvious:
•  Visual aids are an extremely effective means of communication
•  Non-native English speakers need not worry so much about spoken English - they can rely more heavily on visual aids
It is well worth spending time in the creation good visual aids. But it is equally important not to overload your audience's brains. Keep the information on each visual aid to a minimum - and give your audience time to look at and absorb this information . Remember, your audience have never seen these visual aids before. They need time to study and to understand them. Without understanding there is no communication.

Audience Reaction

Remain calm and polite if you recieve calm and polite if you receive difficult or even hostile questions during your presentation. If you receive particularly awkward questions, you might suggest that the questioners ask their questions after your presentation.

Monday, July 26, 2010

Learning English: Spelling Rules

Writing in English is a representation of the spoken language. Therefore, spelling is very important if you want to be able to clearly communicate with others. The importance in spelling and writing is clear – writing stays fixed, even as the spoken language adapts. So, English spelling can at times, seem totally illogical.
Spelling Rules
There are certain spelling rules that will help you with your spelling. However, it is important to remember that even the clearest rules have their exceptions.

Words Ending In Double L

When you come across words that end in double l and you are adding a prefix and/or a suffix, you will need to discard an ‘l’.

  All + Most = Almost
  Full + Fill = Fulfil
  Well + Come = Welcome
  Skill + Full = Skilful
  Will + Full = Wilful

There is, of course, an exception to this rule. When combining the words hill and side, you actually leave the second ‘l’ – Hillside.

Short And Long Vowels

We define short and long vowels in words by the emphasis put on that vowel in the word. Short vowels have more emphasis on other letters, and long vowels have the emphasis on that particular vowel.

When words contain short vowels, they are usually followed by a double consonant:

  Bitter
  Holly
  Dinner
  Latter

However, words with long vowels will normally only have a single consonant:

  Later
  Dine
  Holy

When you say the words out loud, you will notice the stress you put on the vowels in the words. This makes it easy for you to determine how to spell that particular word.

Words Ending In The Letter ‘E’

When adding to a particular word that ends in the letter ‘e’, keep the letter ‘e’ if you are following with a consonant. However, if you are following the letter ‘e’ with another vowel, it is common to lose the ‘e’.

Keep The ‘E’

   Grace – Graceful
   Live – Lively
   Hope – Hopeful
   Time – Timely

Lose The ‘E’

   Take – Taking
   Save – Saving
   Fame – Famous
   Love – Lovable/Loving

‘I’ Before ‘E’, Except After C

People often become confused with this English spelling rule. There seems to be some words that the rule applies to, and others where it doesn’t.

Here is an easy way to remember the words that the rule applies to and the words where the rule changes.

When sounded out, if the sound of the word is /ee/ then it is ‘I’ before ‘e’.

  Siege
  Field
  Chief
  Niece
  Relieve
  Thief

If the sound in the word is /e/ then the ‘e’ comes after the ‘c’.

  Ceiling
   Their
   Perceive
   Receive

Making Words That End In ‘F’, Plural

The majority of words that end in the letter ‘f’ become plural by adding the suffix ‘ves’. However, there are a few words that no do apply to this rule: Chiefs and roofs.

 One Wolf – Two Wolves
 One Shelf –Two Shelves

Making Words That End In ‘Y’, Plural

When words end in the letter ‘y’, and they have a vowel preceding it, just add the letter ‘s’.

    * One Boy – Two Boys
    * One Toy – Two Toys

However, when the word ends in a ‘y’ and has another consonant preceding it, you should change the ‘y’ to ‘ies’.

One Fairy – Two Fairie
One Baby – Two Babies
One Ability – Two Abilities

There are a lot more spelling rules within the English language, and learning them all may take some time. However, knowing just a few of the English spelling rules allows you to be confident in your spelling ability. A good quality English dictionary is a good tool to keep with you as you learn the English spelling rules.

Thursday, July 22, 2010

Software for Learning English

New and exciting software for learning English is now available. If you are one of the many people working to learn English as a second, or even third, language, no doubt you are interested in new methods of learning the language. With today’s advanced technology, no longer do you have to simply rely on books on tape or going to classes, but you can take advantage of this new technology.

While there is some controversy surrounding the use of software for learning English, many have found it to be a valuable tool. So, no matter what your age or ethnicity, it is never too late, or too early, to learn how to speak the English language. Whether you pick software or some other form of learning the language, no doubt you’ll find it exciting and rewarding.

Pros and Cons of Using Software to Learn English

As with most styles of learning the English language, there are both pros and cons to using software for learning English. Take a look at the pros and cons of using this software to decide whether the software is really a good choice for your specific needs.

Advantages:

Learn in Your Own Time – One pro of using the software to learn English is that you will be able to learn the language in your own time. There will be no need to worry about fitting classes into your schedule and you can learn at the pace that best suits you.

Continual Use – Once you have the software for learning English, you can continue to use it, even after you have mastered the basics. The software can continually be used for enhancing your English skills or practicing to keep your skills at their best.

Disadvantages:

Not as Much Actual Interaction – On the negative side, one con of using this software when learning English is that there is not as much actual interaction with software. In a class you have the ability to practice your English with others; however, with software, the human interaction is lacking.

The Price Can Be Expensive – Another con that may prohibit people from using software as a method of learning English is that the price can be a bit expensive. Some software packages can cost over $250, which is quite a bit of money to pay for software.

Tips to Remember When Purchasing Software for Learning English
If you do decide to go with software for learning English, no doubt you will want to get the best software available. The following are a few tips to help you make the best software choice.

Tip #1 – Compare Prices – When you are purchasing this software, be sure that you take the time to compare prices. You’ll want to get the best deal possible, and comparing the price of the same software at several places may help you save money.

Tip #2 – Read Reviews – Reading reviews on the software can be helpful as well and can give you an idea of the best software options available. Find out the pros and cons of each software package, and then choose the one that seems to have the best reviews.

Tip #3 – Compare Features – Take a look at the features as well when you are getting ready to choose a software package. You want to get as many great features as possible that will help you better learn the English language.

A Few Software Choices for Learning English


So, if you are truly considering a software program for learning English, the following are a few of the best software choices to consider.

Tell Me More Premium – This is an expensive software package, costing about $265; however, it comes with many features and helpful tools for learning. You’ll start out by learning English fundamentals and simple vocabulary. As you go on, your skills will be built with writing skills, reading, pronunciation exercises, and even listening comprehension exercises.

Learn English Now – A cheaper option when it comes to software for learning English is Learn English Now. You’ll only pay $39.95 for this software package, which is a great value. It offers great teaching for all levels of learners in the fundamentals of English; however, it only teaches in Spanish and in English.

English Lab – This software package will cost you just under $60, and it has a lot to offer for the price. You get an overview of the English language and many exercises, such as fill in the blank and audio exercises are included. While it may not be the most in depth course out there, it will definitely help you with grammar, vocabulary, and pronunciation.

With all of these options of different software for learning English, you will be on your way to proficiency very soon.

Monday, July 19, 2010

How to Ask Questions In English

Title: How to Ask Questions
Author(s): Betty kirkpatrick
Publisher: Learners publishing
Date: 2007
Pages: 249
Size: 49.22 Mb
Format: PDF in rar
Quality: Excellent
Language: English


It is important for learners of english to be familiar with the various ways that questions can be asked in English. Questions from an important element of English, particulary spoken English. Without such a knowledge of questions and indeed without a corresponding knowledge of how to answer them, learners of English will be unable to become truly fluent in conversational English.
The book describes the various ways that questions can be asked in English. It gives copious examples of all the question methods so that learners can see the language of questions in cation. These examples of questions come accompanled by appropriate answers. Language notes have been inserted throughout the book to add the student's knowledge of question.

DOWNLOAD

Communicate with Confidence!

Title: Communicate with Confidence!: How to Say It Right the First Time and Every Time
Author(s): Dianna Daniels Booher
Publisher: McGraw-Hill
Date: 2000
Pages: 413
Size: 1.12 Mb
Format: html
Quality: Excellent
Language: American English


Say The Right Thing-In Any Business or Social Situation! Each year thousands of executives pack Dianna Booher's seminars to learn to express themselves more clearly and confidently at work and at play.
Now this master communicator has distilled over 600 of her proven speaking and listening tips into a single fast-access primer-one that can help you think on your feet, organize your ideas for impact, build credibility and loyalty, and instantly answer questions from customers... bosses... coworkers... even your spouse!

With Communicate With Confidence You'll develop the skill to: win people over to your ideas; hold your own in meetings; give-and get-advice; say "No" without hurt feelings; criticize without crippling; resolve conflicts without blows; respond to insults and abuse; talk across gender line-and more.



Keep an English Notebook

Make a plan on how and where you are going to learn English at the beginning of your notebooks, a loose leaf note book is best, or even keep it online (we all make mistakes and this way it's easy to correct them).
Set yourself targets and goals:-

How often will you study?
Where will you study?
When will you study?
How many new words will you learn a week?
How will you test yourself?
How will you measure your progress?

In your notebook:-


Write down the word, for nouns include the plural form, for verbs find out whether it is regular or irregular (if it is irregular write down its different forms).
Write down any adjectives or adverbs that might help you remember the word, use word tables to help organise your vocabulary.
Use a picture or diagram that might help you remember the word.
Write sentences with the word in context, use word association to help you.
Write the opposite meaning of the word (if appropriate).
Write out the pronunciation, knowing the phonetic alphabet can help.

Dog is a noun:-

Dog  (singular=1) Dogs (plural=1+)

Word Tables can be useful to sort your ideas when learning adjectives or verbs:-

Adjectives
big
small
bad
good
dog
brown
clever
stupid

Verbs
walk
feed
play with
the dog
groom
train

Pictures and diagrams can help you learn, draw them or cut them out from magazines and paste them onto your page

Making meaningful sentences such as "Dogs chase cats" or "Snoopy is a dog", help you to remember the word in context.

Word associations can be added to as you learn more vocabulary

Dog - animal - bark - puppy - bitch - hound - tail - ears - whine


Walk is a noun "I went for a walk." and a regular verb "I walked for hours.":-

As a Noun

Adjectives
a long
walk
short
country
tiring


With verbs
take
organise
a walk
enjoy

As a verb

Verbs
walk / walked / walking
walk home
walk to work

Adverbs
walk quickly
walk slowly

"The couple walked hand in hand."
"I walk to work every day."
"Walking is good for you."

Word association: Walk - stroll - ramble

Run is a noun and an irregular verb:-

As a Noun

Adjectives
a long
run
short
quick
tiring

With verbs
go for
a run
organise
enjoy

As a verb

Verbs
run / ran / running
run home
run to work
run away
run a race
run an errand

Adverbs
run quickly
run slowly
run regularly

Word association: Run - marathon - race

And finally:-

Avoid writing the translation, if you follow this plan it shouldn't be necessary.
The more you use your notebook the better.
Check your notebook often for revision.

Sunday, July 18, 2010

Complaining in English


When complaining in English, it helps to be polite. This page will help you with this important English speaking skill.

In a shop :
You're in a shop and the assistant gives you the wrong change.

"Excuse me, I think you've given me the wrong change", or "Sorry, I think this change is wrong. I gave you $20, not $10."

In a hotel :
"Excuse me, but there's a problem with the heating in my room."

"Sorry to bother you, but I think there's something wrong with the air-conditioning."

"I'm afraid I have to make a complaint. Some money has gone missing from my hotel room."

"I'm afraid there's a slight problem with my room – the bed hasn't been made."

When people apologise, they normally say "sorry" and offer to put the situation right.

"Excuse me, but there's a problem with the heating."

"I'm sorry – I'll get someone to check it for you."

or "Sorry to hear that – I'll send someone up."

Speaking tip :
Although you may find it strange to use the word sorry when you complain, English speakers consider it polite. It will help you get what you want.

Thursday, July 15, 2010

The Key To Excellent English


What is the most important English skill? What skill must you have to communicate well?

Obviously, number 1 is Fluency.

What is fluency? Fluency is the ability to speak (and understand) English quickly and easily... WITHOUT translation.

Fluency means you can talk easily with native speakers-- they easily understand you, and you easily understand them.

In fact, you speak and understand instantly.

Fluency is your most important English goal.

The research is clear-- there is only ONE way to get fluency.

You do not get fluency by reading text- books. You do not get fluency by going to English schools.

You do not get fluency by studying grammar rules.

Listening Is The Key

To get English fluency, you must have a lot of understandable repetitive listening.

That is the ONLY way.

To be a FANTASTIC English speaker, you must learn English with your ears, not with your eyes. In other words, you must listen.

Your ears are the key to excellent speaking.

What kind of listening is best? Well, it must be understandable and must be repetitive.

Both of those words are important-- Understandable and Repetitive.

If you don't understand, you learn nothing. You will not improve. That's why listening to English TV does not help you. You don't understand most of it. It is too difficult. It is too fast.

Its obvious right? If you do not understand, you will not improve.

So, the best listening material is EASY. That’s right, you should listen mostly to easy English.

Most students listen to English that is much too difficult. They don’t understand enough, and so they learn slowly.

Listen to easier English, and your speaking will improve faster!

Understanding is Only Half The Formula.

Understanding is not enough.

You must also have a lot of repetition. If you hear a new word only once, you will soon forget it. If you hear it 5 times, you will still probably forget it!

You must hear new words and new grammar many times before you will understand them instantly.

How many times is necessary? Most people must hear a new word 30 times to remember it forever. To know a word and instantly understand it, you probably need to hear it 50-100 times!

That's why I tell my students to listen to all of my lessons many times. I tell them to listen to the Mini-Stories, the Vocab Lessons, The Point-of-View Stories, and the Audio articles everyday.

I recommend that they listen to each lesson a total of 30 times (for example, 2 times a day for two weeks).

So, the two most important points are: listen to easier English and listen to each thing many times.

Powerful Listening and Excellent Speaking

1. Practice “Narrow Listening”


“Narrow listening” means listening to many things about the same topic. This method is more pow- erful than trying to listen to many different kinds of things. Students who listen to similar things learn faster and speak better than students who listen to different kinds of things.

For example, you can choose one speaker and find many things by him. Listen to all of his pod- casts, audio books, and speeches. This is powerful because all speakers have favorite vocabulary and grammar. They naturally repeat these many times. By listening to many things by the same person, you automatically get a lot of vocabulary repetition. You learn faster and deeper!

Another example is to choose one topic to focus on. For example, you could read an easy book, lis- ten to the same audio book, listen to a podcast about the book, and watch the movie.

I did this with my class in San Francisco. We read “Charlie and the Chocolate Factory”. Then we listened to the audio book. Then we watched (and listened to) the movie. Then we listened to inter- views with actors in the movie. My students learned a lot of vocabulary in a short time, and their speaking improved very quickly.

2. Divide Your Listening Time


Which is better: to listen for two hours without a break, or to divide that time during the day? Well, dividing your listening time is best.

By dividing your time throughout the day, you remember more and learn faster. So its much better to listen 30 minutes in the morning, then 30 minutes in the car or train, then 30 minutes coming home from work, then 30 minutes before sleep. In fact, this is the exact schedule I recommend to my students!

3. Use an iPod or MP3 Player

iPods are fantastic. You can put a big listening library on one. Then you can carry your English les- sons everywhere. You can learn English while walking, while shopping, in the car, in a train, while cooking,.......

With an iPod or MP3 player, you don’t have to worry about CDs. Also, you can find a lot of English listening on the internet. You can find lessons, stories, podcasts, TV shows, interviews, and audio books. Simply download the audio, put it on your iPod.. and learn English anywhere!

4. Listen To Movies

Movies are great for learning English BUT you must use them correctly. Don’t watch all of an English movie. You will not understand it, and therefore you will not learn anything.

Only watch one scene or segment per week (maybe 2-3 minutes). Follow this method:

a) First, watch the scene with subtitles in your language. This will help you understand the general meaning.
b) Second, watch the scene with English subtitles. Pause. Use a dictionary to find new words you don’t understand. Write the new sentences in a notebook.
c) Listen to the scene a few times, with English subtitles. Do not pause.
d) Listen to the scene a few times, without subtitles.
e) Repeat a) - d) everyday for one week.
On the second week, go to the next scene/segment and repeat again. It will take you a long time to finish a movie. That’s OK, because you will improve your listening and speaking VERY FAST. This method is powerful-- use it!

5. Read and Listen at the Same Time


Listening and Reading together are very powerful. While you listen to something, also read it.  This will improve your pronunciation.

Reading while listening also helps you understand more difficult material. Read and listen to learn faster. After you do this a few times, put away the text and just listen. You will understand a lot more and you will improve faster. Always try to find both audio and text materials.

Tuesday, July 13, 2010

Conversation between Patient and Doctor


  • Patient : May I come in, Sir?
  • Doctor : Yes, you may.
  • Patient : I’ve been suffering from fever for the past two days.
  • Doctor : Did you take any medicine?
  • Patient : No, I didn’t. I’ve got a cold too.
  • (Doctor examines the patient.)
  • Doctor : Your body temperature is 102° F. You must take
  • medicines for at least three days.
  • Patient : Can I attend office?
  • Doctor : You shouldn’t. You must take rest.
  • Patient : What about the diet?
  • Doctor : You should be on liquid diet.
  • Patient : Should I see you again?
  • Doctor : You needn’t. But if the fever persists for more than
  • three days, come and see me.
  • Patient : Sure.
  • Doctor : Here is the prescription.
  • Patient : Thank you, Sir.
  • Doctor : You’re welcome.

Monday, July 12, 2010

Verbs, Types of verbs, Verbs form

What Are Verbs?  

Verbs are made up of one or more “action” words.

TYPES OF VERBS

Finite, Non finite / Infinite, Regular, Irregular, Transitive, Intransitive, Auxiliary, Infinitive, Participles

Finite Verbs

Finite verbs are complete verbs, as they have a subject, number and a tense.

Example: He is singing.

“is singing” is a finite verb as it has a subject (he), a number, and a tense (present continuous)


Non Finite/Infinite Verbs

These do not have either a subject, number or definite tense.

Example: asking permission

“asking permission” is a non finite verb as it does not have a subject, number or a definite tense.

Regular Verbs

These are verbs that end in “ed” when they are in the past tense.

Examples: kick, stop, type

These are all regular verbs which end in “ed” when used in the past tense.  Kick becomes kicked.  Stop becomes stopped.  Type becomes typed.

 Irregular Verbs

These are verbs that do not end in "d" or “ed” in the past tense.

Examples: run, fight, think

These are all irregular verbs which do not end in “ed” in the past tense.  Run becomes ran.  Fight becomes fought.  Think becomes thought. 

Transitive Verbs

These are verbs that have objects.  (This means that the action the verb describes is done to something or someone.)

Example: The man kicked the ball. 

 In this sentence the verb, “kicked” is being done to the object, the ball.

Intransitive Verbs 

These are verbs that do not have an object.  The action described by the verb is not done to anyone or anything.

Examples:   Ducks swim.

                    Dogs bark.

                    Babies cry.

Auxiliary Verbs

These are verbs that help to express the meaning of the main verb in a sentence. They are forms of the verb “to be” or the verb “to have”.

Words like: am, is, are, has, have etc. are often used as auxiliary verbs.

Examples: I am running. 

                  She has slept.

                  He is going.

MODAL VERBS

Modal verbs are a special type of auxiliary verb.

Modal verbs are used to express an attitude towards what is being said or written.

There are two types of modal verbs. These are pure modal and semi-modal verbs.

Pure Modal Verbs  

(These are complicated and will only be dealt with very briefly here)

Pure Modal verbs do not change in any way in the past tense. 
These always come before the main verb, which in the case of  pure modal verbs is always in the bare infinitive form i.e. “run” not “to run” 
May, Might, Would, Could, Need, Should, Can, and Should are pure modal verbs.

Examples:  He may run home.

                    He might run home.

                    He should run home.

                    He could run home.

Semi Modal Verbs 

These are auxiliary (helping) verbs that are usually followed by the full infinitive (e.g. to run). 

Examples: ought to, has/have to, able to

Verbs in the Infinitive Form

The infinitive form of the verb is the base form the verb.

It is the form usually found in the dictionary. The infinitive form a verb can always have the word “to” in front of it.

Examples: run, jump, sing, stop, listen, look

Participles

Participles are the endings added to verbs to give the tense of the verb.Participles "take part" or "participate" in the meaning of a verb.

There are two types of participles. These are present participles and past participles.

PRESENT PARTICIPLES

The present participle is the “ing” extension to the verb used for the present continuous tense.

Examples: running, jumping, laughing, singing

Note: Present participles can sometimes be used as adjectives.

Example: The singing boy.

PAST PARTICIPLES

Past participles are the various forms that verbs take in the past perfect tense (when the action of the verb is complete).

They usually come after the words “has” or “have”. For regular verbs this form of the verb ends in d or ed.

Example:  We have finished the game.

For irregular verbs the past participle form ends in a number of differnt letters. Some of these are “t”, “en” or “n”.

Example:  We have taken the keys.

                   We have learnt something.

Verbs, Types of verbs, Verbs form

Nouns, Noun and its Types


Common Nouns

These are words that are used to refer to common and non-specific things.

Examples:  girl, boy, camera, computer, keyboard

 Proper Nouns:

These are names of people, places, organisations businesses, schools universities etc.  They are always written with a capital letter, even if they are in the middle of a sentence.

Examples:  London, Paris, Michael, Angela, Mercedes Benz, Honda, Oxfam, King Edward VII, Cambridge University.

Abstract Nouns:

These are words used to name non-physical things. These include feelings, states of mind, concepts etc.

Examples: love, hatered, ambition, cynicism, reluctance, mathematics, sociology

Collective Nouns:

These are words that are used to describe groups of things.

Examples: platoon, class, band, cast

Note:  Some collective nouns can only be used to refer to specific groups.

Examples: herd (of cattle),  flock (of sheep),  gaggle (of geese), caravan (of camels)

IMPORTANT

A singular collective noun refers to one group, but a collective noun in plural form refers to two or more groups of the same thing.
Example: herd / herds

singular:  A herd of cattle is grazing in the field.

plural:  Many herds of cattle can be seen while driving through farm lands.

Saturday, July 10, 2010

Five Ways to Improve Your English Reading Comprehension

Improving your ability to read English quickly and accurately takes a great deal of practice. However, you don’t have to read boring materials that or ones that contain words and concepts you aren’t interested in. Once you know the basic elements of the English language, you can select from a wide variety of reading materials, including different methods of presentation. Here are a few fun ways to improve your English reading comprehension.

PLAY WORD GAMES

Today, crossword puzzles and other types of word game puzzles entertain native and non-native English speakers of all ages. If you’re looking for a way to improve your vocabulary and have fun at the same time, these types of puzzles can be of immense help to you. If this is something that interests you, you might also consider Scrabble, word searches and other similar games.

TAKE A SPEED READING COURSE

If you aren’t interested in word games, you might want to try taking a course in speed reading. These lessons will teach you how to pick key words out of a paragraph and understand the message without having to read each sentence word for word. That said, if you’re having difficulty isolating nouns and verbs, you may need to practice more before you try taking these courses.

TAKE NOTES ON SUBJECTS THAT INTEREST YOU

If you’re reading a book on a topic that you enjoy, take some notes. These can be verbatim samples from the text or you can try putting sections in your own words. As you write, you’ll also have an opportunity to think about the sentence structures and see how ideas are conveyed. This will help you learn to discuss these topics in a way that sounds more natural.

SELECT MATERIALS THAT WILL CHALLENGE YOU

Just like with physical exercise, you need to constantly set new goals for yourself so that you continue to progress and improve. For example, if you’re able to work your way through a 100 page children’s book, it’s time to start tackling a longer book or one on a more difficult topic. Regardless of which subjects interest you the most, you’ll be able to find some books that are harder to comprehend than others. By applying yourself to the ones that are more difficult, you’ll gain increased mastery over written English.

READ MATERIALS FROM MANY DIFFERENT AUTHORS

Considering the number of people that have websites, it’s easy to sample a wide range of English writing styles. This will help you to learn about the flexibility of the English language, as well as the means of expression that most people are comfortable with. If you already know a great deal about a certain topic in your native language, you can use that background to help you read websites in English that focus on similar concepts.

For the most part, once you know the basic elements of the English language, practice and time will be your most valuable teachers. It’s important to spend time reading materials that interest you in as many forms as possible and to spice up your practice with things like word games and speed reading classes. Over time – and with hard work – you’ll see dramatic improvements in your comprehension of written English.

How To Help A Child Learn English

While studying the English language many parents may also want to teach their children to speak and read English. This can be a potentially beneficial activity for the entire family. After a parent’s English language ability is already at a high intermediate to advanced level, helping their children learn English can be fun. Teaching the English language to another person can also help to improve the English language ability of a person teaching. Children may ask unique questions about English that may bring special insight into understanding the English language.

;

Here are some good methods for helping children to learn English that may also help parents to study.

Fun Is Number One

When helping children learn English the most important aspect is to focus on fun. Making the study of the English language fun and easy is a parent’s goal when teaching their children. One way to make learning the English language fun is to make sure you are using fun learning materials. Have your children shop with you for English study materials that they like. If they really like something then they will be much more likely to study it. There is an amazing variety of media for children in available in English. Children’s ABC books are certainly a wonderful way to start. English language television and movies can also be a good way to help children learn the English language quickly. Many shows on public broadcasting networks are actually made to teach English to children in primarily English speaking areas of the world. One popular show of this kind is known as “Sesame Street”. It has aired for numerous years and apparently has a proven track record for teaching English language and also basic math to children. A more recent English language learning show for children that airs internationally is known as “Charro.” The show is cartoon about a puppy traveling the world. Parent will likely also enjoy reading their children’s English books and watching the movies and shows together as a family.

English Construction Cards

A parent can make their children a set of English sentence construction cards to make the assembly of English sentences easier for a child. It can also be a fun and beneficial learning activity for a parent to make such cards. English sentence construction cards are basically small cards that each contain a word of the English language. One category of cards would be English nouns, another category would be English verbs, and another category could be English particles. Children (and parents too) can arrange the cards in many possible ways. Arranging the cards in different ways produces different sentences and helps children to quickly make English sentences without needing to write them by hand.

Another interesting thing that can help to make sentence construction easier is to add color to cards in a sentence. These colors can make the word types easier to sort at first. This is essentially making color coded cards for relatively easy construction of English language sentences. For instance, the verbs could be green, the nouns could be blue, the adjectives could be yellow, and so on.

This is hopefully a really good start to make learning English more fun for children.

Thursday, July 8, 2010

Some and Any use in English Language, Some and Any Grammar

We use some and any with uncountable nouns and plural nouns. The general rule is that you use "some" in positive sentences and "any" in negative sentences and questions,

"I have some ideas."
"I don't have any ideas."
"Do you have any ideas?"

However, we can also use "some" in questions.
"Would you like some tea?" (I expect the answer to be "Yes".)

When we use some in a question, we limit what we are offering the other person.

For example, "Can I get you something to drink? – Coffee, or tea?" means I am offering you a limited choice of things to drink.

When we use "any" in a question, we are not limiting the choice.

For example, "Would you like anything to drink?" includes a whole range of things to drink.
"Do you have any questions?" (You can ask me anything you like!)

We can also use any in positive sentences which have a negative meaning.We often use "any" with "hardly", "without" or "never".

"There's hardly any petrol left in the car – we need to go to a garage."
"He went out without any money on him."
"She never has any problem understanding."



1001 Brilliant Writing Ideas

Title: 1001 Brilliant Writing Ideas: Teaching inspirational story-writing for all ages
Author(s): Ron Shaw
Publisher: Routledge
Date: January 24, 2008
Pages: 85
Size: 1.80 Mb
Format: PDF in rar
Quality: Excellent
Language: British English

How often do you hear your pupils cry 'what can I write about?' 1001 Brilliant Writing Ideas offers teachers endless ideas and inventive suggestions, opening up new opportunities for creative writing lessons. With over 1000 different ‘story-starters’ across a vast range of genres and narrative styles, this versatile book provides food for thought for pupils of a wide range of ages and abilities.

This highly practical and richly illustrated photocopiable resource
• Addresses the ‘blank mind’ dilemma, offering pupils a plethora of story-writing ideas and suggestions
• Enables teachers to inspire pupils who struggle with creative writing
• Provides prompts to set ideas into motion, whilst leaving plenty of scope for original and creative thought
• Challenges pupils, encouraging them to use higher level thinking skills
• Offers mix and match stimulus pieces which can be used independently or put together to give pupils more or less support as required

Any teacher whose inventiveness is flagging, and whose pupils are running out of ideas, will find this an essential classroom resource.

About the author
Ron Shaw has many years of classroom experience and is the author of more than 40 books helping primary and secondary school students to improve their thinking skills.

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Tuesday, July 6, 2010

How to avoid silence in English conversations

Sometimes you don't know what to say in a conversation. Perhaps you don't have any words to express yourself, or you haven't understood the other person. Or perhaps there isn't anything left to say! In all these situations, it's important to avoid being silent, so here are some words and expressions to use.



When you don't understand

"Sorry, I don't understand."
"Sorry, could you repeat that?"
"Sorry? I didn't get that."

Looking for words to express yourself

You don't want to be completely silent, but you need time to find the words.

"Well…"
"OK…"
"So…"

You can even make some "noises"

"Hmmm…"
"Uh-huh"
"Umm…"

To agree with the other person

You want to show that you agree, but you don't have anything else to say.

"Yeah."
"Right."

To change the subject

You've all given your opinion, and now you want to talk about something else.

"Anyway,…"
"Well, as I was saying…"
"So, back to …"
"So, we were saying …"

Learn English Vocabulary

When you learn English vocabulary, you will be able to communicate in what many consider to be a global language. It is the de facto official language of the Internet world. And the Internet, as you may know, is the  world's largest marketplace that is going to be a part of everyone's psyche in the near future. The efforts you are making today will pay off very well in the long run.


Learning English vocabulary is a real challenge.  English grew from so many ancient languages -- Arabic, Chinese, Sanskrit even -- that it is not always consistent.  There is a strong influence of Germanic languages and Romantic languages too.

Don't try to learn 50 or 100 English words all at once. When you learn English vocabulary in small chunks, you will discover that the new words will become part of your "working" vocabulary much faster.  And, just think -- learning just 3 new words a day for a year means that you will have learned about 1,000 new English vocabulary words!  Keep track of your progress and you will amaze yourself on how much you will learn.

Learning vocabulary is a basic tool to improve your English .There are at least 500,000 words in English.  The native English speaker uses an average of 5,000 words in his/her everyday speech. And only 50 words make up 45% of everything written in English.
So, there are many words you don’t need at all and there are other words that you simply need to understand when you read or hear them .Finally, there are words which you need to be able to use yourself.   Clearly You need to spend most learning this last group.

  • What Learning A New English Word Means
  • It is not enough just to know the meaning of a word . You also need to know:
  • what words it is usually associated with,

whether it has any grammatical characteristics, and

How it is pronounced.

Try to learn new words not in isolation but in phrases.

  • Write down adjectives with nouns they are associated with and vice versa, e.g. royal family; rich vocabulary.
  • Write down verbs with the structure and nouns associated with them, e.g. to express an opinion
  • Jot down nouns in phrases, e.g. in contact with; a train set ; shades of opinion.
  • Write down words with prepositions, such as, at a high level; thanks to your help.


For instance, think of the word "mountain".  What are all the various adjectives that go with "mountain"?  Perhaps

  • high mountain
  • green mountain
  • rocky mountain

Now, instead of learning just "rocky" or just "mountain", you've learned two new words, AND you've learned how to use them.

You are embarking on a wonderful adventure. To help you on your way, here are some fantastic English language resources that will help you learn English vocabulary at a fast and furious clip. Here's what we've got for you:

learn english vocabulary online, learn english vacabulary

Tips For Teachers.

Here are some tips to help you on your teaching experience.

1. Dress right. Jeans, sneakers, and just-out-of-bed hair may be okay for teachers in the U.S., but in many parts of the world, a neat appearance counts far more than credentials. In Korea dark clothes lend an air of authority. Red is to be avoided at all costs. In Morocco female teachers don’t wear pants, sleeveless blouses, or short skirts.

2. Behave appropriately. When it asked 250 students at the Sichuan Institute of Foreign Languages in China what they liked and disliked about native speaker English teachers, the students’ main gripe was the informality of foreign teachers, who often seem to undermine their own authority by acting in undignified ways. In the U.S. teachers go on a first-name basis with students, sit on their desks, sip coffee, and even bounce off the walls without causing student discomfort or losing prestige. But these behaviors don’t export well.

3. Don’t worry if students seem unresponsive at first. Americans are used to participatory classrooms with plenty of teacher-student dialogue. Elsewhere, students are often trained to be silent, good listeners, and memorizers. It’s disconcerting to stand in front of a sea of blank faces, but expecting it reduces the shock. Introduce new concepts, such as discussion and role-play gradually. You’ll be surprised at how students will come to embrace the change.

4. Choose topics carefully. There are still many countries in the world where people are hesitant to voice opinions because of a fear of reprisal. If you’re conducting a classroom debate, remember that there’s a distaste for Western-style argumentation in Middle-Eastern societies, and in Japan it’s offensive for an individual to urge others to accept his opinion.
Certain topics may be taboo for cultural reasons: Most Americans don’t want to discuss their salaries or religious beliefs; Japanese may be disinclined to talk about their inner feelings; the French think questions about their family life are rude.

5. Don’t ask, “Do you understand?” In China and Japan, students will nod yes, even if they’re totally lost, in an attempt to save face for the teacher. Even in a country as far west as Turkey, yes often means no.

6. Avoid singling students out. Our society fosters a competitive individualism which is clearly manifested in our classrooms. American students are not shy about displaying their knowledge. In classrooms outsides the U.S., however, showing solidarity with classmates and conforming to the status quo is often more important than looking good for the teacher. In Turkey and Montenegro students told me they disliked volunteering answers too often because it made them look like show-offs and attracted the evil eye of envy. If you want to play a game, make the competition among groups rather than among individuals. If you need to discipline a student, do so in private.

7. Be aware of cross-cultural communication styles. French students appreciate wit. Venezuelan students like boisterous rapid-fire exchanges. In Japan, where debate is not as valued as in the U.S., students appreciate long pauses in discussions and silent “think time” after you ask a question. “Hollow drums make the most noise” goes a Japanese proverb, and Japanese students are uncomfortable blurting out the first thing that comes to mind. American teachers, who are uncomfortable with silence, tend to anticipate the student’s words or repeat their original question—both irritating interruptions for the Japanese student.

8. Expect the best of your students. They’ll be serious about learning English because their economic advancement often depends upon mastering it.

9. Present a rationale for what you do in class. Your pedagogy is going to be different from what students are used to. They’ll conform much more eagerly to new classroom content and procedures if they understand the benefits.

10. Relax and enjoy yourself. Happiness in the classroom is contagious.

Tips For Teachers.

Improve Your English Listening

You can improve your English listening skills and English verbal skills simply by listening. When learning your first language you spend most of  your time listening. This is an important point because you honed your skills by taking in more than you put out. The same principle applies to learning a second language such as English. Those who wish to learn English a lot faster do well to take a few tips in mind when it comes to English listening skills.

Listening Skills :

Listening is more that hearing mere words. Listening is an active process where the student listens to the English word being spoken, processes it, assigns its meaning, and then strives to reuse it in spoken or written form. This process is the integral method that needs to be used for successful English listening and comprehension.

By verbally clarifying the message, striving to comprehend it, writing it down, and repeating it verbally clarifies the context and meaning of the spoken language. By honing listening skills, then one can make this whole process easier. Students can become more effective listeners by honing different types of listening skills: comprehensive listening, Critical listening and appreciative listening.


What to Listen To :

You may have found that your English lessons are progressing well, English grammar is now familiar, reading and writing is beginning to go smoothly, and you can formulate your own sentences verbally. However, carrying on a conversation is still quite difficult.

English listening and comprehension is a difficult task to master. To work through this, you need to learn to listen. You need to listen to spoken conversation as much as possible. To do this, simply tune into your radio or internet radio to channels such as BBC, NPR: "All Things Considered" and other radio talk shows. You may find it easy to tune out and allow these to play in the background while you are busy about your day. Your mind is powerful and will take in all that it hears. The more you listen, the more the brain stores away and this makes it easier to comprehend later.

To make this work even better, when you do find yourself in conversation or listening to English, don't try to translate. Instead, simply listen to the speaker; often the mind will do the work for you. Translating into your mother tongue will just create a barrier in the long run.

English Listening Is an Art :

English is more than just words on paper, it is an art form. It involves more than hearing and writing, it involves process oriented thinking skills. The ability to listen effectively develops the students' use of the English language and helps their speech mature. Therefore, it is important for students to provide ample opportunities for themselves to observe and practice the behaviors of effective listeners.

Why is Listening Important?

Listening effectively is one of the most important skills a person can hone. Listening effectively is a core competency skill for all meaningful relationships. As we become better listeners, we can uncover deeper meaning in language and communication styles. Being able to listen well also developed a healthy self-concept both in the listener and in the one speaking. It creates trust, provides for conflict resolution, and shows respect for others. By becoming better listeners, we also pave the way for others to respect us and listen to us more.

here are several websites which can provide activities that will help you improve your abilities. Learn English by listening to lessons such as English pop songs, news reports, films, radio programs, and TV programs or videos in English. Hone your skills for speaking English by utilizing English listen courses.

Improve your english listening, Improve your english listening skills

Monday, July 5, 2010

100 Winning Resumes for Top Jobs

Presenting 100 examples of winning resumes,one of America's leading professional resume writers shares her secrets of writing resumes that have actually led to $100,000+++ jobs for her many high-powered clients. A visual feast of outstanding resumes, this rich collection of resumes is organized by key professions. Each resume presents the "best of the best" these professionals have to offer employers seeking top talent in today's turbulent job market. Examine these resumes and you'll quickly discover what strategies others use in developing resumes that stand out from the crowd. You, too, may join this select group of quality professionals who clearly communicate their qualifications to top employers woorldwide.



Sunday, July 4, 2010

English Speaking Skills

Improving your English speaking skills will help you communicate more easily and effectively. But how do you become a more confident English speaker?
English Speaking Skills

Practice where you can, when you can. Any practice is good – whether you speak to someone who is a native English speaker or not.

It's important to build your confidence. If possible, use simple English sentence structure that you know is correct, so that you can concentrate on getting your message across.

Try to experiment with the English you know. Use words and pharases you know in new situations. Native English speakers are more likely to correct you if you use the wrong word than if you use the wrong grammar. Experimenting with vocabulary is a really good way of getting feedback.

Try to respond to what people say to you. You can often get clues to what people think by looking at their body language. Respond to them in a natural way.

Try NOT to translate into and from your own language. This takes too much time and will make you more hesitant.

If you forget a word, do what native English speakers do all the time, and say things that 'fill' the conversation. This is better than keeping completely silent. Try using um, or er, if you forget the word.

Don't speak too fast! It's important to use a natural rhythm when speaking English, but if you speak too fast it will be difficult for people to understand you.

Try to relax when you speak – you'll find your mouth does most of the pronunciation work for you. When you speak English at normal speed, you'll discover that many of the pronunciation skills, such as linking between words, will happen automatically.

Remember, when speaking English…
Try to become less hesitant and more confident.

Don't be shy to speak – the more you do it, the more confident you'll become.

Remember to be polite – use "please" and "thank you" if you ask someone to do something for you.

English speaking skills online, English Speaking Skills

Improving your English Pronunciation


Here are some tips to help you improve your English pronunciation.

First of all, don't worry about not having a native-English accent. It's important to be able to speak clearly, so that people can understand you. However, it's almost impossible to sound exactly like a native English speaker if you are learning English as an adult in a non-English speaking country.

However, there are many things that you can do to improve your pronunciation and your speaking skills.

1. Listen to spoken English as often as possible.

Listen to how speakers pronounce various words and pharases and "model" your pronunciation on what you hear.

2. Learn the phonetic alphabet.

Use the phonetic alphabet page (at the beginning of most good dictionaries) as a guide to pronouncing new words.

3. Don't forget to learn the word stress of a new word.

Every English word has its own stress, or intonation. For example, the word "believe" has two syllables (be and lieve), but only the second syllable is stressed. We say be'lieve and not 'be lieve. Your dictionary will show the syllable stress by an apostrophe (') before the syllable to be stressed.

Word stress is important. In fact, it is more likely that someone misunderstands you because of wrong word stress than because of the wrong pronunciation of a sound.

4. Work out which sounds cause you most problems in English.

Depending on what your first language is, you may have problems with certain sounds. For example, French speakers have difficulties with "th"; speakers of Mandarin have difficulties with "r" or "l", and Arabic speakers have difficulties with "p" and "b".

5. Practise the sounds you find difficult.

A useful exercise is a "minimal pair" exercise. For example, if you have difficulty distinguishing between "p" and "b", try practising pairs of words which are the same except for the sound "p" and "b":

For example, "pair" and "bear"; "pond" and "bond"; "pie" and "buy" etc.

6. Be aware of intonation and sentence stress.

Not all words in a sentence have equal stress, and generally only the "information" words (nouns and verbs) are stressed.

'Where's the 'pen I 'gave you?

'Where's the 'red 'pen I 'gave you?

Where's the 'red and 'blue 'pen I 'gave you 'yesterday?

The unstressed words (such as "the", "I", "you" and "and") don't carry as much "weight" as the stressed words. They become much smaller in length, and are almost abbreviated. For example, "and" becomes "un".

Changing stress

Sentence stress isn't "fixed" like word stress. In fact, you can stress words that are normally unstressed in order to highlight different meanings.


For example:

I 'love you. (Love, rather than just like.)
'I love you. (With the stress on I to highlight that it's me rather than another person who loves you.)
I love 'you. (And nobody else.)

Intonation

There are a couple of easy to remember rules about intonation. Usually our voices go up at the end of the sentence to show a question, and down at the end to show a statement.

Intonation is also important in "tag questions":

You know him, don't you? (With rising intonation on "don't you?" to show it's a question)
You know him, don't you. (With falling intonation on "don't you" to show it's a statement you expect the other person to agree with.)

7. Learn to recognise spelling patterns.

For example, "tion" on the end of a word is pronounced "shun", while "sion" can be pronounced "zhun". There are often many ways to pronounce a particular spelling pattern, but it certainly helps to know what the variations are. For example, the pattern "ough" can be pronounced "uff" as in "enough" and "tough", or "or" as in "ought" and "bought" or "oh" as in "although" and "dough".

8. Don't rush.

If you speak too fast, the danger is that you could skip over some words, fail to pronounce them completely, or mix them up. If you speak too slowly, you might end up sounding unnatural. But it's better to speak slowly and clearly than too quickly.

Difference Between British and American English

The list below highlights the difference between British English and American English.

Apart from the spelling differences you can see those by clicking on the USA - UK differences at the left hand side of this page - there are a number of differences in vocabulary listed below.

I suggest you look them over because you never know when you may run into an American after studying British English, or when you may run into a Brit after having studied American English.
Having been to England a number of times now myself, I can assure you that the difference between  American and British vocabulary are just enough to cause a few laughs.

Well, maybe a few... misunderstandings. ;-)

What's important to remember?

That both British English and American English are accepted on the examinations as long as you consistently use either one or the other. In other words, don't mix!

Common Differences

       English       American English
  • all right    all right, alright (disputed)
  • analyse    analyze
  • centre     center
  • cheque    check
  • colour     color
  • counsellor    counselor
  • criticise, criticize    criticize
  • defence    defense
  • doughnut    donut
  • favour    favor
  • fibre    fiber
  • flavour    flavor
  • fulfil    fulfill
  • grey    gray
  • honour    honor
  • humour    humor
  • jewellery    jewellery, jewelry
  • judgement, judgment    judgment
  • kerb    curb
  • labour    labor
  • license, licence (verb)
  • licence (noun)    license (verb)
  • license (noun)
  • litre    liter
  • metre    meter
  • mould    mold
  • neighbour    neighbor
  • offence    offense
  • practise (verb)
  • practice (noun)    practice (verb)
  • practice (noun)
  • pretence    pretense
  • programme    program
  • pyjamas    pajamas
  • realise, realize    realize
  • savour    savor
  • speciality    specialty
  • theatre    theater
  • travelled
  • travelling    travelled, traveled
  • travelling, traveling
  • tyre    tire
  • valour    valor

Lets Talk In English

Lets Talk In English | audio |422MB

Let's Talk in English (basic English level)
Let's Talk in English, first published in 1981, and Studio Classroom rank number one and two as the best-selling English magazines in Taiwan. Let's Talk in English, the best domestic English conversation magazine, has earned the IBC Good Programs Award. It provides practical vocabulary and conversation skills to help you learn to speak English well by using simple, useful vocabulary.
Features:
Content: Shopping, traffic, travel, office conversation, leisure, life at home, making friends and American culture Suitable readers: Junior high school graduates and those who pass the basic level of the GEPT Volume of circulation: 290,000 copies Broadcasting: On the air on public and private radio stations from Monday to Saturday Television teaching programs: On the air on PTS and Good TV Supplementary materials:
he Super CD-ROM includes recordings of all the month's audio content, including daily radio programs, audio recordings of each article, plus educational video clips. You can adjust the playback speed of these recordings and set them to loop over different segments. You can also take Cloze tests, listening tests and GEPT practice tests. You can even record yourself repeating after the CD-ROM and the computer will help correct your pronunciation. Some issues also include clips from popular movies and other interactive lessons. The Super CD-ROM is sure to improve your listening, speaking, reading and writing abilities

Audio CD: The monthly audio CD reads through every article once, which helps you pick up vocabulary quickly.

English Grammer Books Download

English Grammar in Use Supplementary Exercises With answers 

English Grammar in Use Supplementary Exercises is for intermediate and advanced students who want extra practice in grammar, without help from a teacher.
There are 200 exercises in this new edition. Each exercise relates to a unit or units in English Grammar in Use new edition 2004, with the unit number(s) at the top of the page. All the answers are given in the Key (pages 121-136). Some exercises ask you to use your own ideas. For these, you can check the Example answers in the Key. You can use this book if you don't have English Grammar in Use, but for an explanation of the grammar points, you need to check in English Grammar in Use.
The grammar points covered in the book are not in order of difficulty, so you can go straight to the parts where you need the most practice. Where there are several exercises on one grammar point, however, the easier ones come first. It's a good idea to do each exercise, check your answers and then go on to the next one.
Many of the exercises are in the form of emails, letters, conversations or short articles. You can use these as models for writing or speaking practice

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Basic English Grammar Book :


Type: pdf
Size: 21 MB
1 What is Grammar?
2 The Capital Letter
3 Nouns


Common Nouns
Proper Noun
Singular Nouns
Plural Nouns
Collective Nouns
Masculine and Feminine Nouns

4 Pronouns

Personal Pronouns
Refexive Pronouns
Interrogative Pronouns
Demonstrative Pronouns

5 Adjectives

Adjective Endings
Kinds of Adjectives
Comparison of Adjectives 

6 Determiners

The Articles
Demonstrative Determiners
Interrogative Determiners
Possessive Determiners
13 Sentences
What is a Sentence?
Kinds of Sentences
The Imperative
The Subject and the Object
Direct and Indirect Objects
Positive and Negative Sentences
Questions

7 Verbs and Tenses

The Simple Present Tense
Am, Is and Are
The Present Progressive Tense
Have and Has
The Present Perfect Tense
The Simple Past Tense
Regular and Irregular Verbs
Was and Were
The Past Progressive Tense
The Future Tense
Can and Could
May and Might
Do, Does and Did
Would and Should

8 Subject-Verb Agreement
9 Adverbs
10 Prepositions
11 Conjunctions
12 Interjections
14 Punctuation


Period
Comma
Exclamation Point
Question marks
Apostrophe

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English Grammar for Students of French

English Grammar for Students of French explains the gram-
matical terms that are in your French textbook and shows you
how they relate to English grammar. Once you have understood
the terms and concepts in your own language, it will be easier for
you to undertand your textbook. With simple explanations and
numerous examples this handbook compares English and French
grammar, pointing out the similarities and differences.

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English Grammar


Subject : It denotes the person or thing about which something
is said. It can be a noun, a pronoun, an infinitive, a
gerund, a noun phrase or clause.

Verb : Write, read... are called transitive verbs. Trasitive
verbs have objects. Sleep, come, go, become.... are
called intransitive verbs. They have no objects. If
the transitive verbs have two objects (answer to what
and to whom) they are called ditransitive verbs.

Object : The object that answers the question ‘what’ is the
DO. The object that answers the question ‘to whom’
is IO.

Complement : It completes the predicate of a sentence. It is an
essential part. The subject complement describes or characterises the subject. The object complement
describes or characterises the object.
Adjunct : It gives additional meaning. It answers to the
question how (manner), when (time), where (place)
etc.
 
Three Degree - Positive, comparative and superlative degree in English grammer
The camel is tall. The elephant is taller than the camel. But,
the tallest animal is the giraffe. It is nearly 5 metres tall. The giraffe
also has the longest neck in the world. Its small head sits at the top
of its long, long neck. The neck is longer than the rest of its body!

‘Tall’ describes the height of the camel. ‘Taller’ compares
the height of the elephant to that of the camel. ‘Tallest’ describes
the height of the giraffe when compared to all the others. Similarly,
’large’ describes the size of the rhinoceros. ‘Larger’ compares the
size of the elephant to that of the rhinoceros. ‘Largest’ describes
the size of the whale when compared to ail the others.
We see that the adjectives change in form (tall, taller, tallest;
large, larger, largest) to show comparison. They are called the three

Degrees of Comparison.

Tall and large, are in the positive degree.
Taller and larger, are in the comparative degree.
Tallest and largest, are in the superlative degree.


The positive degree is used to denote the existence of a quality
in something.

The comparative degree denotes a higher degree of quality
and is used when two things are compared.

The superlative degree denotes the highest degree of quality
and is used when more than two things are compared.

Generally, the comparative is formed by adding ‘er’ to the
adjective and the superlative is formed by adding ‘est’.

e.g. sweet sweeter sweetest
rich richer richest

When the adjective ends in ‘e’, only ‘r’ and ‘st’ are added.
e.g. large larger largest
brave braver bravest

When the adjective ends in ‘y’, preceded by a consonant,
the ‘y’ is changed into ‘i’ before adding ‘er’ and ‘est’.
e.g. heavy heavier heaviest
lazy lazier laziest

For some adjectives ending in a single consonant, the
consonant is doubled before adding ‘er’ and ‘est’.
e.g. fat fatter fattest
mad madder maddest

Certain adjectives form the comparative by using the adverb
‘more’, and the superlative by adding the adverb ‘most’.
beautiful more beautiful most beautiful
difficult more difficult most difficult

The following adjectives are compared irregularly, that is,
their comparative and superlative are not formed from the positive.

Positive Comparative  Superlative

Good      better      best   
Bad     worse     worst   
Little     less     least   
Much, many     more      most
Far     farther     farthest   
Late     later, latter     latest, last

English Grammer - Article A, An and The - Common usage example
Look at the following sentences taken from your lesson:

1. A man can’t know as much as a teacher.
2. Tommy finds a book.
3. Can I read the book with you after school?
In sentence 1, ‘A’ man / ‘a’ teacher refers to the tribe (whole class).

This is a generic reference.
In sentence 2, ‘a’ book refers to a particular, but not (yet) specified thing.
This is a specific reference (known but not specified)
In sentence 3, ‘the’ refers to a particular book.
This is a specific reference (known and specified)

Uses of the indefinite articles:
1. ‘A’ and ‘an’ are used with singular countable nouns.
e.g. The Inspector had a box of tools.
The Inspector gave Margie an apple.
2. ‘A’ and ‘an ‘ are used when talking about a person or
thing for the first time.
e.g. ‘I found a book.’.......... ‘Where did you find the
book?’
(When you refer to the same person or thing the second time, you use’the’.)
3. ‘A’ and ‘an’ are used with an adjective and a noun to give
more information about someone or something.
e.g. Tommy had found a real book!
The Inspector had a red face.
4. ‘A’ and ‘an’ are used to refer to ‘one’.
e.g. It was the old school of a hundred years ago.
5. A’ and ‘an’ are used in the sense of’any’.
e.g. A man can’t know as much as a teacher.

Common uses of the definite article:
‘The’ is used -
- in front of a noun
e.g The fun they had.
All the kids learnt the same things.
- when the person spoken to knows which person or thing
one means
e.g. Can I read the book with you after school?
- when one is referring to someone or something already
specified.
e.g. Margie had a mechanical teacher....... The teacher
gave her test after test.
- when one is referring to something unique
e.g. the sun, the moon, the earth
- before musical instruments
e.g. the guitar, the violin
- before mountain ranges, seas, rivers, gulfs, etc.
e.g. the Alps, the Red Sea, the Yamuna, the Gulf of
Mexico
- before superlatives
e.g. the best, the tallest
- before adjectives to talk about a general group of people
e.g. the rich and the poor
- before certain books
e.g. the Bible, the Vedas
- before ordinals
e.g. the 21st century
- as an adverb before comparatives
e.g. the more the merrier
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